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Mongolian unique places

Many unique places in the World are on Mongolia's territory, and here are seven of the more remarkable:

Highest pressure in winter

Ger in GobiThe highest atmospheric pressure center in the Northern Hemisphere in winter forms. The center comprises the Uvs Nuur and Khyargas Nuur Lakes Depression as well as is called the Asian Center of highest atmospheric pressure. The atmospheric pressure reaches 1.055 hPa in January in the town of Ulaangom, in the main center.


World's northern most desert

The northern most desert in the World is in Mongolia: the Buurug Els, in the Zuungobi Soum in Uvs Aimag, where the sand dune belt reaches 50018' north latitude. This is parallel with the southern part of Canada.

World's southernmost permafrost

The southernmost limit of permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere is in Erdenetsogt Soum of Bayan-Hongor Aimag, at 46017' north latitude near the Daragt Mountain.

Bactrian Camels in Gobi Desert
Permafrost nearest to desert

The distance between the Buurug Els and the southern border of permafrost is only about 700 kilometers. There is no other place on Earth where a desert has penetrated so far north and permafrost so close to the south.

Watershed of the World

The peak of Tsogt Chandmana Uul, at the end of the Khentii Mountain Range, is the watershed of three huge drainage basins: the Arctic Ocean, Pacific Ocean and the Inland Basin of Central Asia. It is only 80 kilometers south of Ulaanbaatar, at 1.854 meter above sea level.

Nuudel or Moving Camp

World's longest active fault line

A remarkable surface fault line- the Bulgan Fault- is probably the longest active fault line in the World. The fault moved in the earthquake of 23 July 1905, with a violence of 8.2 (Khil'ko and others 1985) to 8.7 (Richter 1958) on the Richter Scale, making it " one of the largest known earthquakes in continental regions" according to an international team of seismic experts (Baljinnyam and others 1993). Immediately afterwards open fissures were 60 meter deep and over 10 meter wide. Today, the fault line can be traced by a trail of destruction of broken ground and deflected streams indicating a left lateral slippage of around 11 meter -a huge devastating single movement. The fault line can be traced for almost 400 kilometers from near lake Sangiin Dalai Nuur in Hovsgol Aimag west to the Khangiltsag river headwaters in the Khan-Khukhii Range. Many faults are active in Mongolia -probably the best in the world for studying the surface effects of powerful faults on mountains, rivers, streams and soils, not only due to extreme violence of the faults but also the rare combination of aridity and Gobi River Systempermafrost which enhances the rupturing and ensure the preservation of tell-tale surface features.

Halfway from Pole to Equator

Passing through Mongolia is the 45th parallel. This is the line of latitude whose position in the same distance of 5.001 kilometers from both the equator and the North Pole. Also passing through Mongolia is the 90th meridian. This is the line of longitude whose position is exactly half-way between 0 and 180 degrees longitude with a distance of 6.414 kilometers from each.


Located in the landlocked plateau of Central Asia between China and Russian Siberia, Mongolia covers an area of 1,566,500 sq.km, which is roughly the size of Western Europe. Mongolia stretches about 2,400 kilometers from west to east and about 1,260 kilometers from north to south. The total length of the country's borders is 8,158 kilometers. The country is mountainous with an average altitude of 1,580 meters above sea level. The lowest point, Huh Nuur, is 560 meters above sea level and the highest point is Huiten Mountain in the Mongolian Altai Range (4,374 m).

The capital Ulaanbaatar lies at 1380 meters.

The geography of the country is characterized by great diversity. From north to south it can be divided into four areas: mountain-forest steppe, mountain steppe and, in the extreme south, semi-desert and desert (the latter being about 30% of the entire territory). The principal mountains are concentrated in the west, with much of this region having elevations above 2,000 meters and the country's highest peaks permanently snow-capped land covered with glaciers. Mountains and dense forests predominate central and northern Mongolia and grasslands cover large areas of this region. Across the eastern part of the country stretches the vast grasslands of the Asian steppe. The steppe grades into the Gobi desert, which extends throughout southern Mongolia from the east to the west of the country. The Gobi is mostly gravely, but also contains large areas of sand dunes in the drier areas of the Gobi near the southern border (WTO, 1994).

Lake Terhiin tsagaan The country is dotted with hundreds of lakes, the largest being Uvs-Nuur covering an area of 3,350 sq. kilometers), Huvsgul (2,620 sq. kilometers), and Khara Us-Nuur (1,852 sq. kilometers). Lake Huvsgul is also the largest fresh-water lake in Central Asia. The Orkhon (1,124 kilometers), the Kherlen (1,090 kilometers) and the Selenge (539 kilometers) are the largest rivers.

RainbowMongolia's climate is extremely continental, with long cold, dry winters and short warm summers. The mean temperature falls below freezing for seven to eight months of the year. For two or three months in summer, the weather is warm and pleasant and relatively hot in the southern Gobi region. Winter usually lasts from mid-October until April, with the coldest period being between mid-December and the end of February or mid-March when the temperature drops to -20 or -30°C and occasionally even lower. Snow usually falls between mid-October and mid-April. There are some regions, especially in the north west, where the temperature goes down to -40 to -50 °C. In the Gobi it drops to about - 40 °C.

Average Precipitation
temperature (mm) (degree C)
January - 26.1 1.5
February - 21.7 1.9
March - 10.8 2.2
April + 0.5 7.2
May + 8.3 15.3
June + 14.9 48.8
July + 17.0 72.6
August + 15.0 47.8
September + 7.6 24.4

Humidity is generally low (47-73%), especially in winter, and because of the dryness the cold is less noticeable. Moreover, the cold weather is relieved by the almost continuous blue sky and sunshine. Around Ulaanbaatar, the number of sunny days ranges between 220 and 260 a year.

In 2006 we are celebrating the 800th anniversary of the formation of Mongol State.

Bolor dictionary

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